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压力容器检验的历史及发展

作者:人(ren)气(qi):发(fa)表时间:2017-10-16

1.2.1压力(li)容器检验的发展(zhan)历(li)史(shi)

据有关资料记(ji)载,我国(guo)解放前(qian)在上海成立(li)了锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)检(jian)验(yan)师协会,由检(jian)验(yan)师对压力容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)定期(qi)(qi)检(jian)验(yan)。在东北伪满时期(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)沈(shen)阳(yang)、哈尔滨曾(ceng)设立(li)机构进(jin)(jin)行(xing)监督管理。解放后国(guo)家(jia)(jia)只(zhi)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)一般性管理。由于(yu)1955年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)一起锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)恶性爆(bao)炸事故,国(guo)务院于(yu)1956年(nian)(nian)成立(li)了锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)检(jian)査总(zong)局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。1958年(nian)(nian)撤销锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)总(zong)局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju),在劳动保(bao)护局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)内设立(li)锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)处。1963年(nian)(nian)重新成立(li)锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。1966年(nian)(nian)文化(hua)大革命开始,业务中断。1978年(nian)(nian)恢复锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。1982年(nian)(nian)国(guo)务院颁布的(de)(de)(de)《锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)压力容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)安(an)全监察暂行(xing)条例(li)》使(shi)我国(guo)的(de)(de)(de)压力容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)检(jian)验(yan)进(jin)(jin)入了法制化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)轨(gui)道。随着我国(guo)加入WTO,压力容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)进(jin)(jin)入了一个新的(de)(de)(de)历史(shi)时期(qi)(qi)〃2000年(nian)(nian),我国(guo)政府的(de)(de)(de)机构改革,原(yuan)劳动部锅(guo)炉(lu)(lu)局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)并入国(guo)家(jia)(jia)技(ji)术(shu)监督局(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。

我(wo)(wo)阐现代(dai)(dai)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)有(you)以(yi)(yi)下几个主要(yao)(yao)发(fa)展阶(jie)段:1981年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)颁(ban)布(bu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》([81]劳总锅字7号(hao))为(wei)(wei)(wei)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)提供了(le)法(fa)规(gui)(gui)基(ji)础(chu),国(guo)(guo)务(wu)院1982年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)颁(ban)布(bu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《锅炉压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)暂行(xing)条(tiao)(tiao)例(li)》(简(jian)称(cheng)《条(tiao)(tiao)例(li)》)[国(guo)(guo)发(fa)(1982)22号(hao)文(wen)(wen)]为(wei)(wei)(wei)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)提供广法(fa)律依(yi)据,可(ke)以(yi)(yi)说(shuo)《条(tiao)(tiao)例(li)》的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)颁(ban)布(bu),是(shi)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)现代(dai)(dai)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)起(qi)(qi)始里程(cheng)碑,1987年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)《在(zai)(zai)用(yong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)和缺(que)陷处理意(yi)见(jian)》(劳人锅局(ju)〔1987〕43号(hao))是(shi)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)第一(yi)(yi)个专业技(ji)术(shu)(shu)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng),在(zai)(zai)当时(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)中(zhong)(zhong)起(qi)(qi)到了(le)非常大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong),它(ta)除(chu)了(le)对压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)做出有(you)关规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)外,还针对文(wen)(wen)革期(qi)(qi)(qi)间生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大量严重不(bu)(bu)合格(ge)(ge)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)处理提出广有(you)效可(ke)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)解决方案(an)。它(ta)既(ji)强调了(le)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)要(yao)(yao)求,又解决了(le)不(bu)(bu)合格(ge)(ge)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)停(ting)用(yong)造成企业停(ting)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)实际问题(ti),在(zai)(zai)当时(shi)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)起(qi)(qi)步阶(jie)段,有(you)效地(di)推动了(le)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开展。它(ta)被(bei)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)工作(zuo)(zuo)者(zhe)简(jian)称(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)“43号(hao)文(wen)(wen)”^通过近10年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)艰苦努力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li),到20世纪80年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)(dai)末期(qi)(qi)(qi)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)状况有(you)了(le)很大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)改(gai)(gai)苒,“43号(hao)文(wen)(wen)”已完(wan)成了(le)它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)历史使命,于(yu)1990年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)被(bei)《在(zai)(zai)用(yong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》取代(dai)(dai),1990年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)至今它(ta)一(yi)(yi)直是(shi)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)(yao)依(yi)据。对压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)制度化和規(gui)范化起(qi)(qi)到了(le)巨大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)。它(ta)被(bei)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)工作(zuo)(zuo)者(zhe)们简(jian)称(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)《检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)规(gui)(gui)》。《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》也于(yu)1990年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)被(bei)《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》取代(dai)(dai),1999年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)对《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》进行(xing)修(xiu)订(ding),修(xiu)订(ding)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安令(ling)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》更(geng)科学、更(geng)完(wan)善(shan)。1990年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)版(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)規(gui)》对我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)现代(dai)(dai)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)起(qi)(qi)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)是(shi)积极(ji)(ji)地(di)、巨大地(di)、不(bu)(bu)可(ke)估量地(di),可(ke)以(yi)(yi)说(shuo)它(ta)是(shi)现代(dai)(dai)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)础(chu)。它(ta)对规(gui)(gui)范压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan),保证压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全运行(xing),起(qi)(qi)到了(le)重要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)保障作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)。但是(shi)随着条(tiao)(tiao)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)改(gai)(gai)变及技(ji)术(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进步,《检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)规(gui)(gui)》在(zai)(zai)长期(qi)(qi)(qi)执行(xing)过程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)也暴漏出一(yi)(yi)些问题(ti)和不(bu)(bu)足,并(bing)且与(yu)1999年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)版(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)监(jian)(jian)(jian)察(cha)(cha)(cha)规(gui)(gui)程(cheng)》有(you)许多不(bu)(bu)一(yi)(yi)致处,2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)对《检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)规(gui)(gui)》进行(xing)了(le)较大幅(fu)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)修(xiu)改(gai)(gai)。修(xiu)改(gai)(gai)时(shi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)了(le)与(yu)其他特种设备检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)法(fa)规(gui)(gui)一(yi)(yi)致,将《在(zai)(zai)用(yong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)規(gui)程(cheng)》更(geng)名(ming)为(wei)(wei)(wei)《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)规(gui)(gui)则(ze)》《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)规(gui)(gui)则(ze)》于(yu)2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)6月23日颁(ban)布(bu),2004年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)9月23日开始实施。《压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)(yan)规(gui)(gui)则(ze)》积极(ji)(ji)稳妥地(di)吸纳(na)科研、技(ji)术(shu)(shu)进步的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成果,扩大了(le)适(shi)用(yong)范围,考虑(lv)了(le)各方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)意(yi)见(jian)。

1982年至今的(de)(de)(de)20多(duo)年间,我(wo)国(guo)压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)定期(qi)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)技术也(ye)有(you)(you)了(le)非(fei)(fei)常大(da)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)。首先(xian),我(wo)国(guo)的(de)(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)设计、制造、使(shi)用技术有(you)(you)了(le)很大(da)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),这使(shi)得压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)工作者对压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)有(you)(you)关技术的(de)(de)(de)认(ren)识上(shang)有(you)(you)了(le)极(ji)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,许多(duo)使(shi)用条件极(ji)其(qi)复(fu)杂的(de)(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi),J9九游会AG 都有(you)(you)了(le)可(ke)靠而有(you)(you)效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)方法。其(qi)次(ci),我(wo)国(guo)的(de)(de)(de)无损检(jian)(jian)测(ce)技术也(ye)得到(dao)了(le)很大(da)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan),它带动了(le)压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)的(de)(de)(de)进步,许多(duo)结(jie)沟非(fei)(fei)常复(fu)杂的(de)(de)(de)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)都已找到(dao)了(le)有(you)(you)效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)检(jian)(jian)测(ce)办法,我(wo)国(guo)压(ya)(ya)力(li)容(rong)(rong)(rong)器(qi)定期(qi)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)(yan)技术与国(guo)际先(xian)进水(shui)平的(de)(de)(de)差距已大(da)大(da)缩小。

1.2.2压力(li)容器检验(yan)的发展方向

从(cong)压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)历史及21世纪的(de)(de)经(jing)济发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan),J9九游会AG 可以(yi)预见到(dao)压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)今(jin)(jin)后的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。随著经(jing)济和生产水平的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan),石油(you)化工生产装置将(jiang)向大(da)型化、高效(xiao)率的(de)(de)方(fang)向发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan),生产设备(bei)将(jiang)向低腐(fu)蚀、无泄漏的(de)(de)方(fang)向发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan),长(zhang)周期运行将(jiang)是生产企业(ye)今(jin)(jin)后努(nu)力追求(qiu)(qiu)的(de)(de)目标”。压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)今(jin)(jin)后将(jiang)越来(lai)越大(da),参数〈主要(yao)(yao)指温度、压(ya)(ya)力等〉会越来(lai)越高,内衬的(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)也(ye)越来(lai)越广(guang),结(jie)构(gou)更(geng)趋复杂(如更(geng)多的(de)(de)焊接结(jie)构(gou)会代替法兰结(jie)构(gou)、大(da)量新型材(cai)(cai)质(zhi)都(dou)会用(yong)于压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)的(de)(de)制造。这些变化都(dou)对压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)期检(jian)验提(ti)出了新的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)。高效(xiao)触媒(mei)、催化剂的(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong),高级保温材(cai)(cai)料的(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)等都(dou)会使(shi)(shi)(shi)枓常规(gui)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)期检(jian)验方(fang)法变得(de)非常昂(ang)贵。这就要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)定(ding)(ding)期检(jian)验技(ji)术有(you)一个质(zhi)的(de)(de)提(ti)高。新的(de)(de)《压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)定(ding)(ding)期检(jian)验规(gui)则》也(ye)为从(cong)技(ji)术上解(jie)决此难题提(ti)供(gong)了法规(gui)上的(de)(de)依据。归纳起来(lai),压(ya)(ya)力容(rong)(rong)器(qi)定(ding)(ding)期检(jian)验技(ji)术今(jin)(jin)后将(jiang)在如下几个方(fang)面得(de)到(dao)发(fa)(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。

①压力容器的(de)(de)高参数、大型化无疑会使得容器的(de)(de)结构尺寸越来越大。材(cai)料等级(ji)越来越高,新材(cai)料的(de)(de)使用(yong)越来越广泛,设(she)计(ji)(ji)制(zhi)造(zao)技术越来越复杂。检验员必须(xu)对其(qi)设(she)计(ji)(ji)要求、制(zhi)造(zao)工艺、材(cai)料特(te)性和使用(yong)特(te)点(dian)有一个(ge)比较全(quan)面的(de)(de)了(le)解,才能(neng)有效(xiao)地进(jin)行定期检验。

②随着化(hua)工工艺的(de)(de)(de)进步,高(gao)效(xiao)触(chu)媒、催化(hua)剂(ji)的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)广,同时,其(qi)价格(ge)也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)昂(ang)贵。有效(xiao)期(qi)也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)长。有时为(wei)了定(ding)期(qi)检(jian)验(yan)取出触(chu)媒或催化(hua)剂(ji)会引起其(qi)失(shi)效(xiao)。造(zao)成用(yong)(yong)户的(de)(de)(de)经济损(sun)失(shi),同样高(gao)效(xiao)保(bao)温也冇价格(ge)昂(ang)贵、拆装烦琐(suo)的(de)(de)(de)问(wen)题(ti)。对于这一类(lei)压(ya)力容器如何(he)在定(ding)期(qi)检(jian)验(yan)中既(ji)保(bao)证检(jian)验(yan)质量与(yu)压(ya)力容器的(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)安全,同时又尽(jin)量减少用(yong)(yong)户的(de)(de)(de)经济损(sun)失(shi)是今后检(jian)验(yan)技术发展应考虑到的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)问(wen)题(ti)。

③防腐衬(chen)(chen)里的(de)(de)大量(liang)采(cai)用给压力容(rong)器(qi)的(de)(de)定期检验带来(lai)新的(de)(de)问越。衬(chen)(chen)里层下开裂的(de)(de)检测(ce)目(mu)前还是(shi)一个(ge)普遍的(de)(de)难题(ti),尤其(qi)是(shi)抗氢(qing)衬(chen)(chen)里的(de)(de)容(rong)器(qi)。

④许(xu)多高压、高温容(rong)器(qi)为了避免运(yun)行中的(de)(de)(de)泄漏,采用全焊接结构,不设(she)人孔,有的(de)(de)(de)甚至没(mei)有手(shou)孔。这(zhei)类压力(li)容(rong)器(qi)如(ru)何(he)定期检验(yan),如(ru)何(he)提高检验(yan)技术来保证(zheng)这(zhei)类压力(li)容(rong)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用安(an)全也是今后压力(li)容(rong)器(qi)检验(yan)技术应解决的(de)(de)(de)问(wen)题。

⑤越来(lai)越多的(de)(de)压(ya)(ya)力容器(qi)材(cai)(cai)料是在(zai)热处理(li)(li)状态下工作,材(cai)(cai)料热处理(li)(li)效果如(ru)何(he),直接影响压(ya)(ya)力容器(qi)的(de)(de)运行安全。同(tong)样(yang),这(zhei)类容器(qi)在(zai)使(shi)用中其金相组织的(de)(de)时效或(huo)外界条件引起的(de)(de)变(bian)化,也会给压(ya)(ya)力容器(qi)的(de)(de)运行安全带来(lai)很大(da)的(de)(de)影响。材(cai)(cai)料组织的(de)(de)检验(yan)(yan)技术,也是今(jin)后压(ya)(ya)力容器(qi)定(ding)期检验(yan)(yan)应解决的(de)(de)一个课题。

⑥随着压力容(rong)器的(de)检(jian)验技术的(de)发(fa)展。今后(hou)压力容(rong)器定期检(jian)验无疑将(jiang)由单一设(she)备检(jian)验向整个系统(tong)检(jian)验评价(jia)方向发(fa)展,目前发(fa)达国家普遍采用的(de)基(ji)于(yu)风险的(de)检(jian)验技术(RBI),就是(shi)这一发(fa)展的(de)成果(guo)。

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