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大部分换热器通用原理及适用范围分析

作者:人气:发(fa)表时间:2016-9-25

工作原理和结(jie)构

为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)固定管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)板(ban)(ban)式换(huan)热器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)构造。A流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)从接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)1流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)入壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)内(nei),通(tong)(tong)过(guo)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)间从接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)2流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)出。B流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)从接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)3流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)入,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)内(nei)从接(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)4流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)出。如果A流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)温度高于B流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti),热量便通(tong)(tong)过(guo)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)壁由A流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)传递给B流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti);反之,则通(tong)(tong)过(guo)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)壁由B流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)传递给A流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)。壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)以(yi)内(nei)、管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)和(he)(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)箱以(yi)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)区域(yu)称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),通(tong)(tong)过(guo)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(A流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti))。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)和(he)(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)箱以(yi)内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)区域(yu)称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),通(tong)(tong)过(guo)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)(B流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti))。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)式换(huan)热器(qi)(qi)主要由管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)箱、管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)板(ban)(ban)、管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)、壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)和(he)(he)(he)折流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)板(ban)(ban)等(deng)构成。通(tong)(tong)常壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)圆筒形(xing)(xing);管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)直(zhi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)或(huo)U形(xing)(xing)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)。为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)提高换(huan)热器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传热效(xiao)(xiao)能(neng)(neng),也可采(cai)用(yong)螺纹管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)、翅片管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)等(deng)。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)布(bu)置(zhi)(zhi)有(you)(you)等(deng)边三角(jiao)形(xing)(xing)、正方(fang)形(xing)(xing)、正方(fang)形(xing)(xing)斜转45°和(he)(he)(he)同(tong)心(xin)圆形(xing)(xing)等(deng)多种(zhong)形(xing)(xing)式,前3种(zhong)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)常见。按(an)三角(jiao)形(xing)(xing)布(bu)置(zhi)(zhi)时(shi),在(zai)相同(tong)直(zhi)径的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)内(nei)可排列较多的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi),以(yi)增加传热面积(ji),但管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)间难以(yi)用(yong)机械方(fang)法(fa)清洗,流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)阻力(li)也较大。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)板(ban)(ban)和(he)(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)总(zong)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)称(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)端部(bu)与管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)板(ban)(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)连接(jie)(jie)有(you)(you)焊接(jie)(jie)和(he)(he)(he)胀接(jie)(jie)两种(zhong)。在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)束(shu)中横向设(she)置(zhi)(zhi)一些折流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)板(ban)(ban),引(yin)导(dao)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)多次改变流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)动(dong)方(fang)向,有(you)(you)效(xiao)(xiao)地冲刷(shua)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi),以(yi)提高传热效(xiao)(xiao)能(neng)(neng),同(tong)时(shi)对管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)子(zi)起支承作用(yong)。折流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)板(ban)(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)状有(you)(you)弓(gong)形(xing)(xing)、圆形(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)(he)矩形(xing)(xing)等(deng)。为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)减(jian)小壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)和(he)(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)通(tong)(tong)截面、加快流(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)(liu)速,以(yi)提高传热效(xiao)(xiao)能(neng)(neng),可在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)箱和(he)(he)(he)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)内(nei)纵向设(she)置(zhi)(zhi)分(fen)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)隔板(ban)(ban),将(jiang)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)2程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)和(he)(he)(he)将(jiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)2程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、4程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、6程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)和(he)(he)(he)8程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)等(deng)。管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)壳(qiao)(qiao)(qiao)式换(huan)热器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)传热系数,在(zai)水(shui)-水(shui)换(huan)热时(shi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)1400~2850瓦每平(ping)方(fang)米(mi)每摄氏度〔W/(m(℃)〕;用(yong)水(shui)冷却气体(ti)(ti)(ti)(ti)时(shi),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)10~280W/(m(℃);用(yong)水(shui)冷凝水(shui)蒸汽时(shi),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)570~4000W/(m(℃)。

管壳式换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)特点:管壳式换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)是换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)的(de)基(ji)本类型之一,19世(shi)纪80年代开始就已应用在工业上。这种(zhong)换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)结构坚固,处理能(neng)力(li)大、选材范围广,适(shi)(shi)应性(xing)强(qiang),易于(yu)制造,生产成本较(jiao)低,清洗较(jiao)方便,在高(gao)温高(gao)压(ya)下也能(neng)适(shi)(shi)用。其他换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)种(zhong)类:板式换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)、板翅(chi)式换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)和板壳式换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)等高(gao)效能(neng)换(huan)(huan)(huan)热(re)器(qi)先进。

在(zai)板(ban)(ban)式换热(re)(re)器中(zhong),板(ban)(ban)片(pian)是(shi)传热(re)(re)元件,悬(xuan)挂在(zai)导杆上,板(ban)(ban)片(pian)上面(mian)还(hai)贴有密封垫(dian)片(pian),板(ban)(ban)片(pian)按(an)设计要(yao)求组装后压(ya)紧。流(liu)体(ti)(ti)在(zai)板(ban)(ban)式换热(re)(re)器内的(de)流(liu)动,是(shi)通(tong)(tong)过板(ban)(ban)片(pian)上的(de)角(jiao)孔进入板(ban)(ban)片(pian)通(tong)(tong)道,冷(leng)热(re)(re)流(liu)体(ti)(ti)间(jian)达到换热(re)(re)的(de)作用。普通(tong)(tong)的(de)板(ban)(ban)式换热(re)(re)器主(zhu)要(yao)用于无(wu)相变的(de)换热(re)(re)场合,还(hai)有冷(leng)凝式板(ban)(ban)式换热(re)(re)器用于气体(ti)(ti)冷(leng)凝,以及耐压(ya)较高的(de)焊接式板(ban)(ban)式换热(re)(re)器。

螺(luo)旋(xuan)板(ban)(ban)换热器(qi)应该在系统(tong)中用不锈钢(gang)的(de)(de)螺(luo)旋(xuan)板(ban)(ban)换热器(qi)或者钛板(ban)(ban)换热器(qi),否(fou)则容易在热泵(beng)系统(tong)中出现(xian)结垢腐蚀现(xian)象,为清洗和(he)维(wei)护热泵(beng)系统(tong)增加难度(du)。有些水(shui)源中含矿物(wu)质元素(su)很多,容易对金属腐蚀,如(ru)果直接加入机(ji)组(zu),会因(yin)为腐蚀性而减少(shao)机(ji)组(zu)的(de)(de)使(shi)用寿(shou)命。如(ru)果先对水(shui)进行处(chu)理(li)减少(shao)它的(de)(de)成分(fen),费用会很大,一般是(shi)中间(jian)加装螺(luo)旋(xuan)板(ban)(ban)换热器(qi)换热的(de)(de)方式把水(shui)源和(he)机(ji)组(zu)分(fen)开,这样机(ji)组(zu)就可以(yi)避免因(yin)为水(shui)源的(de)(de)水(shui)质产生(sheng)的(de)(de)腐蚀作用。

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